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雅思词汇:关于那些“隐蔽”的一词多义

雅思词汇:关于那些“隐蔽”的一词多义

发布时间:2021-02-23 来源:新航道雅思
摘要: 英文的一个明显特点即是一词往往有多种词性和多种含义,这似乎是件好事,毕竟我们记了一个词往往可以在不同情况中使用;然而,对于多数考生(尤其是一些基础不算扎实的童鞋)已然成为阅读中的障碍,甚至在查阅单词后依然难以分辨“此处”作何解释。

       英文的一个明显特点即是一词往往有多种词性和多种含义,这似乎是件好事,毕竟我们记了一个词往往可以在不同情况中使用;然而,对于多数考生(尤其是一些基础不算扎实的童鞋)已然成为阅读中的障碍,甚至在查阅单词后依然难以分辨“此处”作何解释。

  要紧的是我们的正确理解要基于:了解词性和对应含义,结合语法分辨语境。

  下面,我们就结合例子认识下那些令人“为难”的一词多义。

  turnover

  1) High employeeturnover has been a recurring problem throughout the hospitality industry.

  2) The company’s turnover is somewhere around $ 70.7million.

  句1)中的turnover 搭配员工,因而指“人员流动率”。句2)中对应钱数,指“营业额”。

  pedestrian

  1) New pedestrian pathways are being built alongside the road.

  2) A place of pedestrian style of architecture won’t appeal to tourists.

  3) If you recognize yourself in this description, you might include a couple of heady growth stocks in your portfolio, alongside your morepedestrianinvestments. (investor’s chronicle, March 23, 1990)

  句1)中pedestrian搭配pathway指“行人的”。句2)中搭配建筑风格,而且句子的语境是不吸引游客,这里pedestrian指“平淡无奇“。句3)解释:如果你觉得你的情况是这样的话,你在投资组合组合中包括几项有令人陶醉的增值前景的增长股,和其他比较平淡无奇的投资项目放在一起。

  power

  1) Cooley suggested that a sense of the self-as-subject was primarily concerned with being able to exercise power. He proposed that the earliest examples of this are an infant’s attempts to control physical objects, such as toys or his or her limbs.

  2) Whereas most exercises are designed to build up strength or endurance, plyometrics focuses on increasing power— the rate at which an athlete can expend energy.

  3) The technique survives to this day at a test site in Florida run by the University of Florida, with support from the Electrical Power Research Institute (EPRI), based in California. EPRI, which is funded by power companies, is looking at ways to protect the United State’s power grid from lighting strikes.

  句1)根据后一句control physical objects的解释,其含义是“能力范围”。句2)破折号给出解释“消耗能量的率”,因而指“功率”;。句3)根据后面一句power company(电力公司)和power grid(电力网),这些已经是一些固定使用的词条,因为power指“电力”。

  reason

  1)A major reason for improving ventilation in 19-century hospitals was the demand from the public for protection against bad air.

  2) Once the age of reason is reached, a child can be rewarded for good behavior and discouraged from bad.

  “reason” 是我们非常熟悉的词,大多数情况下句1)其含义是“原因,理由”句2)这样解释就不符合语境了,此处应为“理性,理智”(即,能做出明智判断的能力)

  freight

  1) The vast expansion in international trade owes much to a revolution in the business of moving freight.

  2) Computer manufacturers in Japan or Texas will not face hugely biggerfreightbills if they import drives from Singapore rather than purchasing them on the domestic market.

  “freight” 一词有两个含义:“货运”(也就是moving the goods)和“货物”(goods)。句1)的搭配moving freight 这里freight指货物。句2)freight bills这里指货运。以上是一些我们常会遇到的词在同一词性下有不同含义,接下来我们再看词性丰富的动词又是怎样影响我们的。

  effect

  1)The knock-on effect of this scrutiny has been to make the governance of companies in general an issue of intense public debate and has significantly increased the pressure on directors.

  2) If correctly administered, such drugs can effectradical cures.

  句1)effect 作为名词,指“作用,影响” 。句2)中effect是动词,这时它指“实现,产生”,此处即“实现彻底的治愈”

  fare

  1) The research suggests that older people fare best when they feel independent but know they can get help when they need it.

  2) They were tired of the fare at restaurants catering to tourists and craving for something a bit more authentic.

  句1)中fare是个动词,指“进展”,此处即是老人过的好。句2)“餐馆里的专为游客提供的”这个语境里,作为名词的fare指食物(food),后半句也写到“追求更地道的食品”。以上的这些词我们往往既熟悉又陌生,而且稍不注意词性和语境就会混淆,这样的细节也往往会影响我们正确的理解与替换,值得注意。最后,希望从这样一些细节开始,我们的阅读渐入佳境。


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